Atomic Structure-Question List

Short Questions (1 or 2 marks)

  1. What is absorption spectrum?
  2. What is emission spectrum?
  3. The circular paths in which electrons revolve are called _____
  4. Why are light rays called as electromagnetic waves?
  5. Write Planck’s equation. What is its significance?
  6. What do you observe on heating an iron rod?
  7. Red colour has ____ wavelength compared to blue colour.
  8. What is a continuous spectrum? Give example.
  9. What is a line spectrum?
  10. Why do street lamps give yellow colour light?
  11. Speed of light in vacuum is ____
  12. K shell has ____ subshell
  13. If n = 2, write l = ? and m = ?
  14. Write the four quantum numbers for the electron in H-atom.
  15. Write the 4 quantum numbers for the electron entering the last orbital of Na atom.
  16. ___ is the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in d-orbital.
  17. While writing electronic configuration for F, a student wrote 1s2 2s1 2p6. Is this correct?
  18. While writing electronic configuration of Sc, a student wrote 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3. Is this correct?
  19. An electron has the following four quantum numbers. n=2, l=0, m=0, s=1/2. To which orbital does the electron belong?
  20. What is the importance of nlx method of writing electronic configuration?
  21. Draw p-orbitals.
  22. Draw dx2-y2, dz2, dxy orbitals.
  23. What are degenerate orbitals?
  24. Do 2p and 3p orbitals have the same energy?
  25. Write electronic configuration for a) S  b) Mg  c) Fe  d) N
  26. What is Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle?
  27. Define an orbital.
  28. How did Sommerfeld modify Bohr’s atomic model.
  29. Wavelength of violet light is 400 nm. What is its energy?
  30. A student made a paste of the following salts in mineral acids and introduced to flame. Guess the colour of the flame observed for each of the salts given below
    • KCl
    • CuSO4
    • CaSO4
    • SrCl2

4 marks Questions 

  1. Write the rules to be followed while writing electronic configuration.
  2. What is the importance of writing electronic configuration?
  3. Explain briefly on the four quantum numbers.
  4. Explain on Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom?
  5. Discuss the various regions of electromagnetic spectrum.

Question List-Human Eye and Colourful World

Hello again,

This is a question list for 5th lesson- Human Eye and Colorful World, Physical Science text-book. Happy Solving.




  1. What is least distance of distinct vision?
  2. What is the angle of vision?
  3. How do you appreciate the role of ciliary muscles?
  4. What is the role of iris?
  5. How does iris help the pupil as a variable aperture?
  6. What are ‘rods’ and ‘cones’?
  7. Calculate the minimal focal length of eye.
  8. Calculate the maximum focal length of eye.
  9. What is accommodation of lens?
  10. What do you understand by far-point?
  11. What do you understand by near-point?
  12. How do you correct the following defects-
    1. Myopia
    2. Hypermetropia
    3. Presbyopia
  13. Define Power of Lens. Write its unit.
  14. Find the focal length of a lens of power, -2 D. What type of lens is this?
  15. A doctor has prescribed a corrective lens of power +1.5 D. Find the focal length of the lens. Is the prescribed lens diverging or converging?
  16. A student has difficulty in reading the blackboard while sitting in the last row. What could be the defect the child is suffering from? How can it be corrected?
  17. What is a prism?
  18. Show refraction of a light ray through a prism.
  19. Through a model graph show the variation between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
  20. Light of wavelength  L1 enters a medium with refractive index n2 from a medium with refractive index n1. What is the wavelength of light in second medium?
  21. Write an expression for finding the refractive index of glass prism.
  22. What is dispersion of light?
  23. Through a diagram, show refraction and dispersion of light in a water drop.
  24. What is scattering of light?
  25. A light of wavelength 500nm travels in air. Find its frequency.
  26. What is scattering centre?
  27. Why is sky blue in colour?
  28. Why does sky appear white during noon time?
  29. Why does sky appear red or orange in colour during sunrise and sunset?
  30. What is Raman Effect? How is it used in identifying molecules?
  31. Why does rainbow appear like a “bow”?
  32. When do we observe a rainbow?
  33. Draw a structure of human eye and label parts.
  34. Anitha can only see objects beyond 50 cm from her eyes. Which lens is preferable to correct her vision. What should be its power?
  35. Which colour has the shortest wavelength?
  36. Which colour has the smallest frequency?
  37. Write a relation between frequency and wavelength of light.
  38. What happens to your eye when you enter a darkened cinema hall from bright sunshine? (or) Why does it take some time to see objects in dim room when you enter the room from bright sunshine outside?
  39. Explain the functions of the following parts of the eye
    1. Cornea
    2. Pupil
    3. Retina
    4. Optic nerve
  40. Consider the following 2 situations. The eyes of a person are focused on
    1.  on a nearby object
    2. on a distant object.

In which case, the focal length of eye-lens will be maximum? In which case, the converging power of eye-lens will be maximum?



  1. Discuss the structure of eye briefly.
  2. Explain how accommodation of eye lens is vital for us to visualize the world.
  3. What is short-sight?  Discuss this accommodation defect in detail. How to rectify this defect? Draw Diagrams.
  4. What is long-sight?  Discuss this accommodation defect in detail. How to rectify this defect? Draw Diagrams.
  5. What is Presbyopia? How to rectify this eye defect.
  6. How would you find the refractive index of a prism experimentally.
  7. Derive an expression for finding the refractive index of a prism.
  8. Discuss the formation of rainbow.
  9. Discuss briefly on scattering of light?
  10. Through an experiment, explain how particle size affects scattering of light.


Questions-Human Eye

Question list – Acids, Bases and Salts


Here is a question list for chapter 3- Acids, Base and Salts, Physical Science text book, TS.

Happy Solving.

PS: Leave a comment, in case of any doubts.


                                            Topic: Acid, Base and Salts

Short Q&A (2 or 1 marks)

  1. What are olfactory indicators? Give examples
  2. What colours do the following indicators turn when added to base
    1. Methyl orange    b. Red Litmus    c. Turmeric    d.Phenolphthalein
  3. Give the names of any 2 strong acids and any 2 weak acids.
  4. Give the names of any 2 strong bases and any 2 weak bases.
  5. Name a natural source for the following acids
    1. Citric acid    b.Acetic acid        c.Oxalic acid        d.Lactic acid
  6. What is an indicator? Give some examples.
  7. What are organic acids? What are mineral acids?
  8. You are provided with 3 test tubes, each containing distilled water, acid and base solution. If you are given only blue litmus paper, how do you identify the contents of the test tube.
  9. Complete the table
    Sample Solution Red Litmus Paper Blue Litmus Paper Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange
    HCl Red
    HNO3 Colourless
    NaOH Yellow
    Ca(OH)2 No change
  10. Which gas is evolved when acid reacts with metal? How do you test it?
  11. Why are acids not stored in metal containers?
  12. What happens when HCl is reacted with Aluminium metal. Write an equation.
  13. How is Sodium Zincate formed?
  14. What happens when dil.HCl is reacted with baking soda. Write an equation.
  15. A solution reacts with crushed egg shells to produce a gas which extinguishes a burning candle and also turns lime water milky. Identify the solution. Which gas is evolved? Write an equation for the given reaction.
  16. What is neutralisation reaction?
  17. Tap water conducts electricity but distilled water does not. Why?
  18. A metal compound A reacts with dil.HCl to produce effervescence. The gas evolved extinguishes a burning candle and also turns lime water milky. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction if one of the compounds formed is calcium chloride.
  19. Why do aqueous solution of acids conduct electricity?
  20. Why does dry HCl gas does not change the colour of litmus paper?
  21. What happens when sulphuric acid is added to copper oxide?
  22. While diluting an acid, it is always recommended to add acid to water and never water to acid. Why?
  23. Equal length of Magnesium ribbon are dipped into test-tube A and test-tube B. Test-tube A contains aqueous HCl and test-tube B contains vinegar. In which test-tube will there be more fizzing (or more vigorous reaction) and why?
  24. What is alkali? Give example
  25. What is tooth decay?
  26. Ramesh was suffering from stomach pain due to indigestion. He was asked to take an antacid. Will antacid help in mitigating his pain? Justify.
  27. Give examples of antacids?
  28. Write a chemical reaction to prepare washing soda?
  29. How do you treat a honey bee sting?
  30. What is a Universal Indicator?
  31. Complete the table
    Sample Solution Colour on pH paper pH value Nature of Sample
    Soft drinks Weakly Acidic
    Blood Greenish-Blue
    Pure water 7
    Lemon Juice Acidic
    Toothpaste 8
    Milk of Magnesia Purple
  32. What is acid rain? How does it affect aquatic life?
  33. What is meant by brine solution?
  34. You have 2 solutions A and B. The pH of solution A is 6 and pH of solution B is 8. Which solution has more hydrogen ion concentration? Which solution is acidic?
  35. Give 2 examples of Acidic Salts.
  36. Give 2 examples of Alkaline Salts.
  37. Classify the given salts into Families- Calcium Chloride, Sodium Sulphate, Potassium Sulphate, Potassium Chloride, Ammonium Carbonate, Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Nitrate.
  38. Write the formula for the following salts and identify the acid and bases from which these salts are obtained: Potassium Sulphate, Sodium Sulphate, Sodium Nitrate, Ammonium Chloride.
  39. What is Chlor-Alkali process?
  40. List the uses of products formed from Chlor-Alkali process.
  41. How is bleaching powder prepared? Write an equation.
  42. When baking powder is added to dough, it makes the cake soft and spongy. Why? Write a chemical equation.
  43. List the uses of washing soda.
  44. What is water of crystallization?
  45. List the uses of Calcium Sulphate Hemihydrate.
  46. How is gypsum prepared?
  47. What happens when copper sulphate crystals are heated?
  48. Five solutions A,B,C,D and E have pH as 4,1,11,7 and 9, respectively. Arrange the solutions in increasing order of hydrogen ion concentration. Classify the solutions as acidic, alkaline and neutral
  49. Why should Plaster of Paris be stored in water-proof container?
  50. To dil.HCl solution, Phenolphthalein was added and subsequently, Sodium Hydroxide solution was added drop-wise and an appearance of pink colour was observed. What do you infer from this observation?

4 Marks Q&A

  1.  Compounds such as alcohols and glucose contain hydrogen but are not categorized as acids. Describe an activity to prove it.
  2. Write an activity for the chemical reaction between metals with acids. How would you identify the gas which is released in this reaction?
  3. A white shirt has yellow stain of curry. When soap is rubbed on the shirt during washing, the yellow stain turns reddish-brown.
      1. Name the natural indicator present in the curry stain.
      2. Explain the changes in the color of the indicator which takes place during washing.
      3. What is the nature of soap as shown by the indicator.
  4.  You have two solutions A & B. The pH of0 solution A is 6. The pH of solution B is 8. Which solution has more hydrogen ion concentration? What colours will be seen on the universal indicator for A & B? Which solution is acidic / alkaline.
  5. Describe an activity show the reaction between metal carbonate and acid.
  6. Through an activity show the reaction between metal oxide and acid. From the product of the reaction, comment on the nature of metal oxide.
  7. Acids behave as acids only in solutions. Justify this statement through an activity.
  8. List and discuss the importance of pH in daily life.
  9. Through an activity, discuss on water of crystallization.
  10. Read the information given in the table and answer the following questions.
      1. List out the acids in the below table.
      2. What is the nature of the solution which gives pink color with Phenolphthalein solution.
      3. List out neutral solution
      4. Name the strongest acid and strongest base among the given solutions.


    Solution pH Value With Phenolphthalein With Methyl Orange
    HCl 1 No color change Turns into red
    Distilled water 7 No color change No color change
    NaOH 13 Turns into pink Turns into yellow
    Lemon juice 2.5 No color change Turns into red
    NaCl 7 No color change No color change
    Baking soda 8 Turns into pink Turns into yellow


Question List-Reflection of Light at Curved Surface


This is a list of questions for the first lesson, Reflection of Light at Curved Surface. Read through; comment if you have any doubts. Happy Solving

Topic: Reflection of Light at Curved Surface

Short Q&A (2 or 1 marks)

  1. What is reflection?
  2. Can we see inverted images in any mirror?
  3. What are the 2 laws of reflection?
  4. Why is a concave mirror called as converging mirror?
  5. Define the following.
    1. Centre of curvature        c. Pole        e.Principal Axis
    2. Radius of curvature        d. Focus    f.Focal length
  6. A set of parallel rays fall on a convex mirror. Through a ray diagram represent the reflected rays.
  7. Complete the ray diagram. Where will the image form & What will be its nature?
  8. Why is a convex mirror used as a rear-view mirror?
  9. Which mirror is used in car headlights and why?
  10. Can you obtain an erect image using concave mirror? Show it with a ray diagram.
  11. What is a real image?
  12. What is a virtual image?
  13. What is Fermat’s principle?
  14. What is magnification?
  15. List a few uses of concave mirror
  16. Draw and mark the following for AO ray and A’P ray
    1. Normal    b. Angle of incidence and reflection    c.Reflected ray
  17. Magnification produced by a concave mirror is +1. What does this mean? Where is the object placed?
  18. List sign convention followed in drawing ray diagram.
  19. Complete the table.


S.No Incident Ray Reflected Ray
1 Parallel to P-axis Through Focus
2 Passing through Focus
3 Through the centre of curvature
4 Along P-axis
5 At the pole with angle of incidence = 450

20. Complete the table.


S.No Object Position Image Position
1 At F At infinity
2 At C
3 Between C & F
4 Between C & F
5 Behind the mirror


4 Marks Q&A

  1. Write an activity to find the focal length of a concave mirror.
  2. Write an activity to observe different types of images formed by a concave mirror.
  3. Derive a formula to find the focal length of a mirror if you the values of image distance and object distance
  4. Explain the use of a concave mirror in solar cooker.
  5. Distinguish between concave and convex mirror.
  6. Draw ray diagrams. Comment on the nature of image formed.
    1. Object placed in front of a convex mirror
    2. Object placed within the focus of a concave mirror
  7. Discuss the importance of spherical mirrors in daily life    or            If spherical mirrors were not known to human beings, guess the consequences.
  8. The focal length of a concave mirror is 15 cm. Answer the following
    1. What will be the characteristics of image if the object is placed at 20 cm
    2. What is the maximum object distance to get an image inside mirror
    3. Where does an object need to be placed to get an image at infinite distance
    4. Where does an object need to be placed to get m=1.




R = 2f                     units: cm or m

f = R/2

1/f = 1/v + 1/u     units: cm or m

1/v = 1/f – 1/u       For a concave mirror both f and u will be always negative

1/u = 1/f – 1/v       For a convex mirror, u will be negative; f and v will always be positive

m = hi/ho                no unit

m = -v/u


  1. Find the distance of the image when an object is placed on the principal axis at a distance of 10 cm in front of a concave mirror of radius 8 cm.
  2. A convex mirror has a focal length of 1.5 m. if bus is located 5m from the mirror, find the position, nature and magnification of the image formed.
  3. An object of 4 cm is placed at 25 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. Find the image distance and height of the image.
  4. A concave mirror has a focal length 18 cm. What is the radius of curvature

The above numerical are just sample problems. Given any numerical question, the procedure to solve will involve the same steps with the use of the above tabulated formula.